what's epilepsy, epilepsy is a disease of the brain. human beings who've epilepsy have electrical activity in the brain that isn't always ordinary, inflicting seizures. there are distinct types of seizures. in some instances, a seizure may also reason jerking, out of control actions, and loss of awareness. in other instances, seizures purpose handiest a length of confusion, a staring spell, or muscle spasms. epilepsy is also referred to as a “seizure sickness.”
epilepsy isn't always a intellectual infection, and it isn't a sign of low intelligence. it's also not contagious. seizures do no longer commonly purpose mind damage. among seizures, someone with epilepsy is not any special from anybody else.
symptoms of epilepsy
the number one symptom of epilepsy is seizures. a single seizure is not taken into consideration epilepsy. humans who have epilepsy have repeated episodes of seizures.
there are numerous distinctive kinds of seizures, and that they each purpose distinctive signs. a few commonplace kinds of seizures include the following:
generalized tonic-clonic (grand mal) seizures: this form of seizure affects the entire mind. at some stage in the seizure, the muscular tissues in the frame become rigid (stiff), then shake and agreement (referred to as convulsions). the individual having the seizure usually loses cognizance (faints). he or she may additionally clench their jaw, chunk their tongue or cheek, or lose manipulate of their bladder.
absence (or petit mal) seizures:this form of seizure influences the entire brain and normally lasts just a few seconds. during the seizure, a person may have a staring spell, be ignorant of his or her environment, all at once forestall speaking or moving, or have small adjustments in muscle moves.
partial (focal) seizures:this type of seizure influences only one part of the mind. the symptoms may additionally vary, depending on where within the brain the seizure begins. for example, a partial seizure may motive modifications in feelings, or to the senses. these can encompass hallucinations, numbness, tingling, or different adjustments to vision, flavor, odor, touch, or hearing. this type of seizure may also purpose muscle contractions (for example, inflicting the character to move the pinnacle in an uncommon way, or jerk an arm or a leg). or, the seizure might also motive staring spells, every so often with uncommon repetitive movements. these can consist of moving the mouth or the lips, chewing or swallowing, or hand actions.
before a seizure begins, a few people enjoy dizziness or emotional modifications. in addition they can also enjoy changes in imaginative and prescient (together with hallucinations), scent (smelling an smell that isn’t there), and contact (along with numbness or tingling). feeling these things before a seizure is called an aura. recognizing an air of secrecy is useful as a caution that you are about to have a seizure.
while ought to i name my doctor?
name your medical doctor if:
you have got a seizure that lasts longer than five minutes.
you injured your self in the course of the seizure.
the manner you commonly feel at some point of and after having a seizure changes.
it takes you longer than ordinary to recover after having a seizure.
your seizures grow to be extra intense or happen greater often.
a second seizure without delay happens after the first.
you are pregnant.
you have diabetes.
you have a surprising headache, numbness, or weak point in a single side of your frame, or troubles with your imaginative and prescient or speech right earlier than you have got a seizure. those can be symptoms of a stroke.
what reasons epilepsy?
doctors don’t constantly realize what causes epilepsy. some things which could growth your threat for epilepsy include the subsequent:
genetics: human beings with a parent or sibling who has epilepsy are at an increased danger for developing epilepsy.
head trauma: critical head accidents can reason epilepsy, once in a while years after the damage.
infection: infections along with meningitis, encephalitis, and aids can boom the danger of epilepsy.
medical situations: other medical situations can boom the chance of epilepsy. these encompass alzheimer’s ailment, stroke, brain tumors, or problems with the blood vessels within the mind.
problems in the course of pregnancy, delivery, or early development: in a few instances, infections at some stage in pregnancy, problems at some point of birth, congenital mind defects (issues with the brain which might be present at delivery), or injury to an toddler’s brain may additionally reason epilepsy.
how is epilepsy identified?
to diagnose epilepsy, your health practitioner will overview your medical records and carry out a neurological examination. your doctor might also advocate blood exams. she or he can also order an electroencephalogram (eeg), computed tomography (ct), or magnetic resonance imaging (mri). these checks allow your doctor to reveal your mind hobby and observe your mind for issues including bleeding or tumors.
can epilepsy be prevented or prevented?
docs don’t always know what reasons epilepsy. it seems to run in households. in that case, you can now not be capable of prevent it. but it also might be because of a head trauma. in that case, you may prevent epilepsy if you can prevent injuring your head.
epilepsy commonly is treated with remedy. if remedy doesn’t assist your seizures, your health practitioner may additionally propose surgical procedure or different treatment plans. in case your doctor is aware of what is inflicting your epilepsy, treating the cause may make the seizures prevent.
what do i want to realize about taking remedy for epilepsy?
drug treatments that assist save you seizures are called anticonvulsants or antiepileptics. your physician will advise a medicinal drug based totally on the sort of seizures you have got, how frequently you have seizures, your age, and your standard fitness. once you begin taking the medicine, your medical doctor will monitor you carefully to decide whether the drug is working. he or she will additionally be watching for side consequences, and to make sure your dose is accurate.
facet results may additionally encompass fatigue, dizziness, pores and skin rash, or problems along with your memory, coordination, or speech. name your medical doctor right away if you revel in despair, suicidal thoughts, or excessive rash at the same time as taking your remedy.
to assist your medicinal drug paintings nicely, observe your health practitioner’s commands for taking it. do no longer prevent taking your medication with out speaking to your physician. ask your medical doctor what to do in case you leave out a dose. in no way take greater medication, even in case you think you’re about to have a seizure. communicate in your doctor earlier than you begin taking any new drugs, which include vitamins or dietary supplements.
you must avoid drinking alcohol when you have epilepsy. alcohol can make it less complicated to have a seizure and can also have an effect on the way your epilepsy remedy works to your frame. a few medicines can also make it simpler to have a seizure, so take a look at together with your health practitioner earlier than starting to take any new drug treatments.
it can be possible for some humans who have epilepsy to sooner or later forestall taking medicine. however, this choice have to be made through your doctor. before you and your health practitioner can determine to prevent the medication, numerous questions ought to be considered. those include how quickly your seizures were controlled, how lengthy you have been free of seizures, and if you have other illnesses which could have an effect on your trouble.
what about surgical procedure and other treatment options?
surgical procedure is most typically accomplished if it’s acknowledged that your seizures start in a properly-described vicinity of your mind that doesn’t interfere with important functions like speech, language, or listening to. in different instances of medication-resistant seizures, your doctor may additionally recommend a kind of remedy known as vagus nerve stimulation. this calls for a small tool be implanted below the skin for your chest. the device can provide electric pulses to the vagus nerve within the neck. a sort of treatment for youngsters with positive forms of epilepsy which can be hard to manipulate entails a strict food regimen this is excessive in fats and occasional in carbohydrates. this food regimen is known as a ketogenic weight loss plan. this weight loss plan must be prescribed and monitored by using a physician. with all treatments, work together with your doctor to decide the exceptional treatment for you.
what should i do when a person has a seizure?
when you have epilepsy, you may want to proportion the subsequent information with your circle of relatives, pals, and coworkers. if a person near you has a seizure, use the subsequent widespread hints:
don’t move the character to any other region.
don’t try to hold the person from moving or shaking.
don’t try to wake the man or woman through shouting at or shaking them.
dispose of objects that would motive injury if the character falls or bumps into them.
gently flip the character on his or her side so any fluid within the mouth can competently pop out.
never try to pressure the person’s mouth open or put some thing in it.
area something soft (inclusive of a pillow) under his or her head.
maximum seizures aren’t life-threatening. you don’t want to name a doctor or an ambulance except the character isn’t recognised to have epilepsy or until the seizure lasts longer than 5 mins.
while the seizure is over, watch the character for signs and symptoms of confusion.
allow the individual to rest or sleep if he or she desires.
living with epilepsy
by no means knowing when or where a seizure might also arise could make you demanding. this anxiety can cause melancholy. it can even trigger more seizures. to assist fight this, talk to your medical doctor. she or he may additionally prescribe medicine to help reduce tension or advise remedy or a aid organization. you could want help finding a manner to deal with your worry of having a seizure.
epilepsy can also growth your threat of damage or other issues. talk for your physician approximately how to manage any relevant concerns, inclusive of:
being pregnant complications: out of control seizures can have an effect on the unborn toddler. epilepsy remedy might also have an effect on the unborn child. choices approximately taking medicine all through being pregnant should be made by using you and your medical doctor, after talking about the dangers and the blessings.
harm: you may injure your self in the course of a seizure, or while a seizure reasons you to fall, drown even as swimming or bathing, or have a vehicle coincidence. laws about driving for human beings with epilepsy are specific in each nation. ask your neighborhood epilepsy basis about driving guidelines or ask your health practitioner.
emotional issues: humans who've epilepsy are more likely to experience melancholy, mood disorders, and suicidal thoughts. talk on your health practitioner if you assume you is probably depressed, or when you have thoughts about harming yourself.
surprising unexpected loss of life in epilepsy (sudep): humans who have epilepsy have a small chance of unexpected dying, especially human beings who have common seizures that don’t reply to remedy. medical doctors don’t recognise precisely why sudep happens. it is thought to be the result of breathing or coronary heart issues.