cold agglutinins are autoantibodies produced by someone's immune device that mistakenly goal pink blood cells (rbcs). they reason rbcs to clump together while someone is exposed to bloodless temperatures and growth the probability that the affected rbcs can be destroyed by using the frame. this check detects and measures the quantity of bloodless agglutinins inside the blood.
while the presence of bloodless agglutinins in someone's blood results in considerable rbc destruction, it could cause hemolytic anemia and result in a low rbc count number and hemoglobin. this uncommon form of autoimmune hemolytic anemia is called bloodless agglutinin ailment. cold agglutinin sickness can be primary or secondary, triggered by way of some other ailment or situation.
number one bloodless agglutinin disorder typically affects those who are center age to elderly, and it has a tendency to hold through the years (persistent). secondary bloodless agglutinin disorder may additionally have an effect on anybody and may be acute or continual, temporary or persistent. it is able to purpose hemolytic anemia to a extra or lesser degree and is associated with a spread of conditions. for details see the "what does the take a look at result mean?" segment in commonplace questions below.
the cold agglutinin test isn't always robotically ordered. it's far a take a look at that has been available for a long term, but it has become much less typically used as extra unique exams for secondary causes, together with mycoplasma pneumoniae infection, have turn out to be to be had.
how is it used?
a chilly agglutinin take a look at can be used to assist locate cold agglutinin ailment and determine the reason of someone's hemolytic anemia. it may be used as a observe-up test after a entire blood count (cbc) shows a decrease in someone's purple blood mobile (rbc) remember and hemoglobin, in particular if these findings are linked to an publicity to cold temperatures.
bloodless agglutinin disorder is a unprecedented autoimmune disease wherein autoantibodies produced with the aid of a person's immune machine mistakenly target and smash rbcs, causing hemolytic anemia. these autoantibodies are bloodless-reacting and can reason symptoms and signs and symptoms related to anemia after an affected character is exposed to bloodless temperatures. this disease may be categorized as both number one or secondary, brought on by means of an contamination or different circumstance.
when is it ordered?
this test can be ordered when someone has reactions to cold temperature exposures and has signs of hemolytic anemia that can be due to bloodless agglutinin ailment. signs and symptoms may additionally consist of:
fatigue, weak point, lack of power, pale pores and skin (pallor), dizziness and/or headaches from anemia
in some instances, painful bluish hands, feet, ears, and the end of the nose that occur with exposure to bloodless temperatures
what does the take a look at end result mean?
the end result of a cold agglutinin test is commonly mentioned as a titer, which include 1:sixty four or 1:512. a better range way that there are more autoantibodies present.
a advantageous titer may additionally imply that the person tested has cold agglutinin sickness. cold agglutinin ailment can be number one or secondary, triggered through a few other disorder or condition inclusive of:
mycoplasma pneumoniae infections—up to seventy five% of those affected can have multiplied cold agglutinins.
mono (infectious mononucleosis)—greater than 60% of those affected will have multiplied cold agglutinins, but anemia is uncommon with this infection.
some cancers, together with lymphoma, leukemia, and more than one myeloma
some other bacterial infections, consisting of legionnaires ailment and syphilis
a few parasitic infections, such as malaria
some viral infections inclusive of hiv, influenza, cmv, ebv, hepatitis c
higher titers of autoantibodies and those that react at hotter temperatures are associated with hemolytic anemia and worse signs.
the diploma of purple blood cell (rbc) hemolysis and hemolytic anemia will vary from man or woman to individual and with every episode of cold exposure. a few conditions, which include infectious mononucleosis, are regularly associated with improved cold agglutinins however hardly ever related to anemia.